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Executive Function is a term used to describe a set of mental processes that helps us connect past experience with present action. We use executive function when we perform such activities as planning, organizing, strategizing and paying attention to and remembering details.

People with executive function problems have difficulty with planning, organizing and managing time and space. They also show weakness with “working memory” (or “seeing in your mind’s eye”), which is an important tool in guiding one’s actions.

As with other manifestations of LD, disorders in executive function can run in families. Problems can be seen at any age but tend to be increasingly apparent as children move through the early elementary grades; the demands of completing schoolwork independently can often trigger signs that there are difficulties in this area. (www.ncld.org)

ADHD & Speech-Language Pathology

GrowNOW provides individualized therapy to facilitate academic success by providing solutions for improving grades, behavior, and productivity within the classroom setting. It is about meeting goals in all areas of your life. Our resources are here to help you succeed academically, socially and personally.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. Social communication deficits include impairments in aspects of joint attention and social reciprocity, as well as challenges in the use of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors for social interaction. Restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities are manifested by stereotyped, repetitive speech, motor movement, or use of objects; inflexible adherence to routines; restricted interests; and hyper- and/or hypo-sensitivity to sensory input. (ASHA)

Stuttering affects the fluency of speech or natural flow of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called “disfluencies.” Most people produce brief disfluencies from time to time. For instance, some words are repeated and others are preceded by “um” or “uh.” Disfluencies are not necessarily a problem; however, they can impede communication when a person produces too many of them. (ASHA)

Articulation is how speech sounds are made. If someone is having difficulty producing these sounds correctly, it can be difficult to understand them. Young children often make speech errors. For instance, many young children sound like they are making a “w” sound for an “r” sound (e.g., “wabbit” for “rabbit”) or may leave sounds out of words, such as “nana” for “banana.” The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age. (ASHA)

GrowNOW provides full diagnostic evaluations in all areas of speech and language including reading and written language. We can provide supplementary testing to evaluations that you or your child may already have received in order to achieve a thorough assessment of all areas of learning and performance. Screenings are also available if you want to ensure that your child is progressing typically with their speech, language and reading skills. Each evaluation is individualized and customized to each client’s needs.

Social skills and pragmatics are the rules of language and behavior we use in everyday social situations. These rules involve: using language for different functions (i.e. greetings, requesting), altering language to different speakers (i.e. talking to a baby versus an adult), and following rules for conversations (i.e. turn taking and staying on topic).

Cognitive-communication disorders encompass difficulty with any aspect of communication that is affected by disruption of cognition. Communication may be verbal or nonverbal and includes listening, speaking, gesturing, reading, and writing in all domains of language (phonologic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic). Cognition includes cognitive processes and systems (e.g., attention, perception, memory, organization, executive function). Areas of function affected by cognitive impairments include behavioral self-regulation, social interaction, activities of daily living, learning and academic performance, and vocational performance. (www.asha.org)

Speech language pathologists serve a vital role in the development of literacy skills. Spoken language and literacy have a reciprocal relationship such that the language skills learned in the early years will have a direct effect on a child’s reading and writing success in school. One of the first spoken language skills connected to early reading and writing skills is phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the knowledge that words are made up of sounds (i.e. “cat” has 3 sounds, c-a-t). It is very important that children at this age acquire strong phonological awareness skills such as rhyming and engage in sound play so they can later apply these skills to the printed letters. Speech therapy sessions are very beneficial if your child is experiencing difficulties with early literacy skills.

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